Mendelian randomization is commonly used to infer causal relationships among complex traits, but the approach is confounded by pleiotropic effects. Here the authors develop a new statistical approach that can distinguish between genetic correlation and full or partial genetic causation. They apply both their model and several MR methods to GWAS summary statistics for 52 diseases and complex traits and show that their algorithm decreases the number of false positive causal relationships identified.
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Spinal cord injury often results in irreversible paralysis due to blocked communication between the brain and the spinal cord. While electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has been successfully applied to restore motor function in animal models, electrical stimulation in humans has been less effective for reasons not yet completely understood.